İŞLETİM SİSTEMLERİ

İŞLETİM SİSTEMİ KAVRAMI

İşletim sistemlerini iyi anlayabilmek için modern bilgisayar sistemlerinin yapısını ve zaman içinde ilkel hallerinden bugünkü karmaşık ve fonksiyonel hallerine kadar olan gelişimlerini bilmek gerekir. Bilgisayar dışındaki elektronik cihazlar sabit yazılımlara sahiptirler. Kullanıcı, cihazın daha önceden programlanmış fonksiyonel ara yüzü ile cihazı yönetir. Bu nedenle sadece daha önceden programlanmış sonuçlar üretilir. Uzaktan kumandalı bir televizyonda olduğu gibi televizyonun fonksiyonel ara yüzü uzaktan kumandasıdır. Uzaktan kumanda yardımıyla televizyona komutlar iletilir ve üretici firma tarafından daha önceden programlanmış özelliklere göre ekranda kanallar değişir veya diğer özellikler aktif olur. Bilgisayarlar ise herkes tarafından programlanabilir yapısı sayesinde her defasında farklı sonuçlar üretilebilir. Bu nedenle bir bilgisayarda çalıştırılabilecek sonsuz sayıda program geliştirilebilir. Geliştirilen programlar yardımıyla bilgisayardaki tek bir donanımda sonsuz sayıda farklı sonuçlar elde edilmesi mümkündür. Bu özellik bilgisayarlar ile diğer elektronik cihazları ayıran en temel farktır.

İŞLETİM SİSTEMLERİNİN ÖZELLİKLERİ

  • Kullanıcı dostu bir ara yüze sahip olmak.
  • Bilgisayarın güç düğmesine basıldığı andan itibaren tüm donanım birimlerini kontrol ederek sistemin eksiksiz ve hatasız açılmasını ve işlemesini sağlamak.
  • Sistem kaynaklarının kullanıcılar ve programlar arasında verimli ve etkili şekilde paylaşımını sağlamak.
  • Giriş/çıkış işlemlerini gerçekleştirmek.
  • Hataları ve sorunlarını düzeltmek.
  • Sistemin denetimi için servis hizmeti sunmak.

İŞLETİM SİSTEMİNİN BİLEŞENLERİ

Aygıt Yönetimi: Bir işletim sisteminin temel işlevlerinden biriside sistemde yer alan donanımın birimlerinin uyumlu ve düzgün çalışmasını sağlamaktır. Bu göreve aygıt yönetimi denir.

İşlem Yönetimi: Bir program çalışırken arka planda bir çok işlem gerçekleştirilir. Normal şartlarda bilgisayar çalışırken herhangi bir anda işlemci sadece tek bir işlemi çalıştırabilir. Fakat modern işletim sistemleri aynı anda birden fazla işlemin çalışmasına izin vermektedir. Çalıştırılması gereken bütün işlemleri belli bir sıraya koyma ve zamanı geldiğinde hangi işlemin çalışacağına karar verme işi işlem yönetimi tarafından sağlanır. 

Bellek Yönetimi: Von Nuemann mimarisine göre bir bilgisayar sisteminde bulunması gereken temel birimlerden birisi bellektir ve sınırlı sistem kaynaklarının başında yer almaktadır. Belleğin etkin şekilde çalışması bir bilgisayarın çalışma hızını belirleyen en temel faktörlerdendir. Bu nedenle işletim sisteminin temel görevlerinden birisi belleği etkin ve verimli şekilde paylaştırılmasını sağlamaktır. Buna bellek yönetimi denir. 

Dosya Yönetimi: Bilgisayarda kullanıcıya ya da sisteme ait her türlü veri dosya şeklinde muhafaza edilir. Bu nedenle işletim sisteminin en temel fonksiyonlarının başında bu dosyaları depolamak ve istenildiğinde ulaşılmasını sağlamak gelir. Tüm dosyalar verilerin depolanması, okunması ve yazılması amacıyla kullanılan fiziksel depolanma donanımları yani diskler yardımıyla tutulur.

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